Thursday, February 28, 2019

Why Women Smile

In our culture, friendliness is conveyed through with(predicate) a make a showcase and it is agreed in the discipline of Anthropology that the pull a face is some social occasion that carries across wholly cultures. In every human society, grimaces convey the same emotions happiness, pleasure, enthusiasm and other positive feelings. However, smiles seem to mean different things between the manpower and women, of our culture, who exchange them. As my step father said, a cleaning fair sex who smiles is seen as friendly, but also more than exchangeablely single. Simply put, pull a face is an irresistible quality and most people flock to a torrid smile like moths to a flame.For women, joyous could mean galore(postnominal) things. I, among others, take aim often eras feigned a smile in nervousness, irritation, awkwardness and sometimes glum happiness. In intimate settings, a natural smile fancys a person is enjoying her or himself and the other people present. In pr ofessional settings, especially that of customer service, a smile, feigned or non, is a implorement. It makes the business seem warm and open to all but smiling on the job and make up in little formal environments support lead to problems for women. Un indirect requested perplexity is often gained through a broad, seemingly genuine smile.In Amy Cunninghams essay, wherefore Women Smile, she mentions, We smile so often and so promiscuously that the make a face adult young-bearing(prenominal) has scram a peculiarly American pattern (325). On many occasions, Ive heard of a man who yells at a cleaning lady on the street to Smile baby It aint that drab. Smiling seems to have become something of a social requirement. To the observer, the smile-less supposed(p) curmudgeon business leader be falsely interpreted. She moldiness non be riant because she is non smiling. This particular individual could have trouble with smiling due to human face damage, being in deep thought or whitethornbe she has exclusively suffered a death of a family member.Whatever the circumstances, the crazy has decided that he does not like her frown, for it moldiness be so intolerably unattractive that he has taken it upon himself to make a statement. On a daily basis, the prevalent is reminded by the media that being attractive is important and a beaming smile is attractive. To be plain, humorless and rejected by men was a sort out given to suffragettes in the early twentieth century, as the book Womens Rights Changing attitudes 1900-2000 (11) mentions. Smiling has been labeled as an essential quality for women in our country.Smiling is a social grace that could easily be sexualized because it opens the door for fundamental interaction and a lot of female to male interaction ends up involving sex. subsequently all, women and men argon made by nature to reproduce with each(prenominal) other, therefore sexuality between the two is biologically inherent. Even though this is the case, the act of smiling itself is not the root bonk, it is merely the outer splutter of the conflict. In the book, Female Chauvinist Pigs, Ariel Levy spoke virtually the result of the Tonight Show, in May 2003, which Katie Couric guest hosted.Couric later commented that she wanted to show America her fun side on the Tonight Show, but in truth she was exposing more than being fun, or even being sexual. rightfully what she was showing was that she was open to a certain sort of management- which is something that we particularisedally require if we argon going to animadvert of a woman as hot. hotness doesnt just yield approval. Proof that a woman actively seeks approval is a crucial criterion for hotness in the offset printing sharpen. (32) A smile can convey openness, submission, a willingness to socialize, playfulness and that a person is seeking not save attention, but approval.When smiling and drooping at what a customer or someone we have delight in has to sa y, the speaker may feel sizable roughly themselves and may gain a sparked interest in the listener. To be engaged in socialization likely delegacy openness to more socialization. This is the point where the meaning of a smile can become tangled in a web of miscommunication. Again, Ariel Levy mentions, For women, and except for women, hotness requires projecting a miscellanea of eagerness, offering a promise that any attention you receive for your physicality is welcome. (33), and smiling is the first step down a road to attention gained through behaviorism, a philosophy of psychology that deals with learning through experience. In a mans world, a woman who smiles is a sure woman. Through a set of past experiences of women smiling or not smiling, a man can asses what these facial expressions mean. To men, a smiling woman is a friendly woman and a friendly woman is a potential mate. It is a simple, easy to understand, thought process. To the contrary from a womans eye, smiling could mean many an emotion or thought.A female passerby could have multiple crusades to willfully smile other than a males sexually attractive qualities. She could be thinking about how she has been promoted at work, is happy about the weather, her new pamper fish is on her mind or she may have simply remembered a good memory that took place nearby, all while happening to make eye contact with this stranger. The stranger does not know she is very pleased about her new pet fish and therefore jumps to the assumption that her smile was directed blatantly toward him.She does not know him, therefore he must be attractive or she would not have thrown him that suggestive facial expression. As well, women are taught from a young age to smile eagerly because women are supposed to be nice. Girls play with baby dolls and domestic utensils like miniature ovens when boys are playing with miniature military equipment and G. I. Joes. Women are to be the kind and agnatic sex while the men are to be the aggressors. Smiling at a passersby is the polite thing to do, the lady like thing to do. For women, it is a reflex.In her article in the online magazine XOJane, S. E. Smith wrote and article about the issue of not constantly smiling in public and the response of the smile baby guy, a male stranger who tells women that they should smile in public situations. Its al focussings smile baby guy talking to a woman or someone he reads as a woman. This is about the fact that ladies need to look pretty, and furthermore, that ladies need to be in good moods all the time. Telling people to smile is about telling them that you think theyre in an unacceptable moodIts yet another reminder of the ways in which women are expected to perform for the public, to put up a good face at all times or face the consequences. (1) These consequences that a women could face can range from social labeling to ostracization to violence. If women, the gentler sex, are not smiling like they are expected to be, something must be unseasonable and men, being the aggressors must do something to fix or stop it. A woman such as my mother, who takes her job seriously and is stoic when needful gains labels such as cold and unapproachable.This is not the case, but she happens to lack that cladding smile that should be plastered across her face at all times. She is at work to get her job done and this means that smiling is not always appropriate. A friendly, non-threatening smile has become the appropriate archetype for women. Women have allowed a perpetuated pick up of femininity, of predictability and kind nature, to exist, mainly through our smiles. It has become an expectation for us. Amy Cunningham states, To limit a woman to one expression is like editing down and orchestra to one instrument.And the search for more authentic means of expression isnt easy in a culture in which women are still expected to be magnanimous smilers, helpmates in crisis, and curators of everybody elses mora le. (330) Women in America have become beacons of eagerness to the outside world. match to Cunningham, in the 1800s, attractive women began to appear in many types of advertisements. Society got the fancy that smiling was a natural trait for women and the women of the time caught on and began to imitate the pictures they saw. 328) This confuses people of other cultures when they encounter American citizens. We have much less formality when addressing strangers and authority figures, and we tend to flash our smiles automatically. When the McDonalds chain eating house was introduced in Moscow in 1992, the Americans who ran the businesses were extremely discouraged when the employees wouldnt crack smiles when greeting customers, who I presume, also did not smile. (329) As a society, it seems that we do not consciously recognize our tendency to oer use our smiles for any old occasion.Our teeth are used when anxious, in happiness and in an attempt to be socially pleasing. Along with our chimerical images of smiles come unrealistic expectations of reality. Our faces are lying to us. Gaining respect is also a plight that the smile has caused personally and professionally for the female gender as a whole. If women are treated as sweet and domestic, expected still to fulfill the stereotype of the kind, listening role, we can not state our opinions thoroughly. It is time that the gentle sex make a new image.Levy explains, It no hourlong makes sense to blame men. Mia Leist and plenty of other women are behind the scenes, not just in front of the cameras, making decisions, making money, and hollering We want boobs. playboy is a case in point. Playboys image has everything to do with its pajama-clad, septuagenarian, babe-magnet founder, Hugh Hefner But in actuality, Playboy is a company by and large stretch by women. Hefners daughter Christie is the chairman and CEO of Playboy Enterprises.The CFO is a middle-aged mother named Linda Havard. The Playboy Foundation is run by Cleo Wilson, and African-American former civil rights activist. A woman named Marilyn Grabowski produces more than half the magazines photo features. (35) At this point, not only do we fill the roles of the smiling, sexy woman, but women everywhere are operative in jobs that continue to further the attitude that we have a specific purpose. That purpose being a thing to look at. A thing that looks good, a thing that smiles.It is hypocritical for women to take part in these careers, save as later mentioned by Ariel Levy, in her interview with Christie Hefner, she asked her how she (Christie) felt about young women aspiring to be in Playboy magazine. Her response was, The reason why I think its perfectly okay is because the way women see being in the magazine is not as a career bust as a statement. (40) Levy goes on to explain, An actress or a mother sure, but a lawyer or an exe turf outive not necessarily. Putting your tush on display is still not the best way to make par tner or impress the board.The only career for which appearing in Playboy is a truly strategical move is a career in the sex industry. (43) Smiling does not prove that we are intellectuals or have intense work ethics. Smiling does not show all of the hard physical labor we have done or the hours we have put into studying to earn our bachelors, know and PHDs. Smiling does not show that we wish to better ourselves more than our grandmothers envisage was possible. Mostly, smiling shows the world that we believe we are content with the status quo.We must fight back against the stigmas we are furthering in our culture. Smiling is the start. If we can cut back on smiling and only use our grins for genuine happiness, in spontaneous joy, we can begin to move onward. If we can show that smiling has a certain meaning, that the connotation it currently possesses is an inaccurate portrayal of our intelligence, wants and needs, we can gain more respect. The wish for a better future must be ful filled through showing our own society and finally the world that we do not meet the standards of a smile, but that we outstrip those standards.

Merck & Co. Performance Appraisal System Essay

1) WHY?Brief Background on Merck & Co. carrying into action judgment System The past and existing exertion judgement of Merck & Co. was ineffective to reveal and reward consummation to a certain extent. Although the conjunction was paying their employees rough seven to eight percent more than the just compensation in other large companies, the cognitive process appraisal clay did non distinctly identified egressstanding consummation, which ca economic consumptiond inequity in recognize transaction and lead to unhappiness among the employees, especially the advanced performers. Compared to the fair performers, there was only if marginal increase in allowance for big performers. Without proper recognition and rewards, the corporation was at risk of losing its high performers and keeping the worst performers. Core Problems and Its causative Identification High Degree of Criterion deprivation and Criterion contamination The core problems identified for inequi ty in instruction execution appraisal was the high degree of Criterion Deficiency and Criterion Contamination in transaction appraisal, obligate distribution in motion caste and biasness in performance appraisal.There were 3 causal for the core problems. The 3 causal were viz. 1) the companys absolute performance evaluation home base, 2) companys salary tendency under(a) the old plan and 3) schoolmasters biasness in appraisal. testimony Using Core Concepts to Solve the High Degree of Criterion Deficiency and Criterion Contamination The 3 proposed recommendation to address the 3 causal are namely 1) describeing conceptual criteria through employees job analysis to bear off criterion deficiency and contamination in performance appraisal, 2) employee comparison models (rank-order method) to identify large performers under salary determination and 3) introducing an ongoing assessment to go through superiors biasness. 2) WHAT?Causal 1 Performance Appraisal under the Old Plan (Criterion Deficiency & Criterion Contamination) The Absolute performance rank scale could only rate the individuals performance autonomous of the performances of other employees. In my opinion, this individuals performance rate scale was no longer relevant or sufficient in unfit company like Merck & Co in the present. From the case, it was noted that an employee was dissatisfied that the companys performance was ordinary and 83 percent of the employeeswere rattling transcend job expectations. This had proven that the performance appraisal system was inaccurate in measuring the employees performance. For example, it might be due to the fact that the potence of the company depends on an individuals performance, that was interdependent on his subordinates, superior and even colleagues in a team context.Thus, an absolute performance rating scale would be ineffective in identifying and rewarding true performance as it had caused a criterion deficiency of excluding the team performance as one of the important criteria for performance appraisal. Causal 2 Salary intent under the Old Plan (Forced Distribution for Performance Rating) In Merck & Co., the salaries of the employees were rigid by a salary line formula comprises of the Hay points system. The employees would wherefore get their actual salary based on their part for compa-ratio on the control point. On the surface, this system seems to be structured in rewarding based on merit, but in fact, it was not effective in rewarding majuscule performers. Firstly, an employees compa-ratio would always be capped at the maximum of 125 percent. In other words, an employee can only cod a maximum of 25 percent more of the normal coke percent salary even he had performed exceptionally well in his job. Secondly, consistent good performers were unable to maintain compa-ratio of 120 percent and in a higher place due to the annual revision on the control points. When the control points increased, the compa-r atio of an employee would dropped for more or less of the time, regarding his performance.Thirdly, an outstanding employee with high compa-ratio would get lower pay increase compared to an employee with average compa-ratio, given the same performance ratings. This salary determination system disheartened outstanding employees to continue to perform as the reward they get out of this system was capped and limited, and similar to what average employees would get for their effort. From the case, one of the employee had actually voiced out that it was demoralizing and demotivating as no matter how stiff he work, he will still get the same rating as everyone else and the same 5 percent increase in salary. In addition, as reflected from the case, the vast majority of the employees received 3 or 4 succession very few received 1,2 and 5. There was a forced distribution for performance rating. This system had caused criterion deficiency as the determination of the employees salary was no t clearly assessed on their performance and thus,making the outstanding performers to feel inequity. Causal 3 No fairness in the Performance Measures (Biasness) There was a significant amount of complaints from the employees on the performance appraisal system as there were no fairness in the performance taprooms. This was caused by the biasness of the authenticator.The contributory factors of biasness could be vanity, narcissism, laziness and frivolity (Michael, 2007). For vanity, the valuer would inadequacy to give high ratings to his subordinate so as to make his tribe and department to look good and get good bonuses and other rewards. In the case, an employee who was an appraiser commented that he was unable to rate his people objectively as other directors were giving all their people a rating of 4, and it makes him problematical to give his people a rating of less than 4. For narcissism, the appraiser would measure performance using his own point of expression. An employe e reflected that managers were afraid of giving go through people a rating of less than 4 but uncoerced to give new people a rating of 3. The managers point of view was that experient employees would get a rating of 4 and above while new employees would get a rating of 3. In the case of laziness, the appraiser measures assumed performance without any thoughts and efforts. This could be related to the case whereby the experienced employees would be rated higher than the newcomers as it was assumed by the appraiser that the experienced employees were better than the newcomers in term of performance.Lastly, for frivolity, the appraiser was not serious in the appraisal and would look for ways to blame others rather than shouldering the responsibility for improve performance. From the case, an employee who performed well was not given a rating of 5 by his supervisor, as his supervisor did not get a 5 for his performance appraisal. It might be due to the supervisors self-interest that make him reluctant to give a rating of 5 to his subordinate. These errors of appraisal had caused the performance measures to lose its values and resulted in criterion deficiency and contamination as the appraisers were not doing their appraisal properly. 3) How?Recommendation 1 to address Causal 1 Identify Conceptual Criteria through Employees Job Analysis Firstly, the company should use job analysis as the procedure to find the criteria and job performance scope for its employees in order to eliminate criterion deficiency and contamination and increasecriterion relevance. Job analysis would help to identify conceptual criteria much(prenominal) as observable job behaviors and characteristics of the job environment. Based on a relevant set of performance criteria, the direction would then be able to measure and reward their employees performance effectively and would in turns, accurately reflects the effectiveness of the organization and eliminate cases whereby most of the employ ees exceeded job expectations when the company was only doing average in performance.Recommendation 2 to address Causal 2 Employee Comparison models (Rank-order method) as the Appraisal Method for Salary Determination Secondly, in order to improve on the way that the company determine the employees salary, the steering can implement rank-order method as the performance rating for salary determination. In the companys existing performance appraisal program, the management used forced distribution whereby the vast majority of the employees were given an average ratings and very few employees were given in the high and low ratings. This was reflected in the salary determination for the employees where there were no significant difference in the salary among the employees. It was ineffective to some extent in rewarding the outstanding performers as only a small proportion or percentage of the employees would get high ratings for their performance. Thus, it was recommended for the manag ement to use the rank-order method so as to force the appraiser to perform detailed analysis on the employees and rank them in order of their performance.Unlike forced distribution, the rank-order method can be motivating for the employees to perform as it objectively identify the worst and outstanding performers without the restriction of the quotas to meet in these two categories. When the salary determination system was paired up with Rank-order Appraisal method, according to the order of employees ranking, it can give rise a distinct gaps in terms of Hay points and Compa-Ratio between deplorable to average and high performers. Also, the employees in top rankings would get higher ratings in performance appraisal. Based on the salary line formula, rank-order performance rating method would significantly increase the salary gap between average and high performers contributed by the increase in the Hay Points, Compa-Ratio and performance ratings make by the high performers.Recomm endation 3 to address Causal 3 An Ongoing Assessment & Self-Assessment (360 Degrees Feedback) Thirdly, in addition of theyearly formal performance appraisal, the company can introduce a weekly or periodic ongoing performance assessment and self-assessment to measure its employees performance effectively. The ongoing assessment must be objective, job-related and provide appeal process for employees who are not satisfied with the performance rating. With an ongoing assessments put in place, the management would smirch biasness by using and compare a variety of performance evaluations such as 360 degrees feedback that involve multiple appraisers and would also prevent the appraiser to appraise based on their own biasness without any substantial proof on the employees performance. The ongoing assessment would promote fairness in performance appraisal. speechCase Study1) Merck & Co., Inc. (A)2) The 7 Deadly Sins of Performance Measurement and How to rescind Them

Hemingway’s Writing Style Essay

From almost the beginning of his writing career, Heming ports distinctive mood occasioned a great deal of comment and controversy. Basically, his flare is innocent, direct, and unadorned, probably as a result of his spikely newspaper training. He avoids the adjective whenever possible, still because he is a headmaster at transmitting emotion without the flowery prose of his Victorian novelist predecessors, the effect is far more telling.In Observations on the bearing of Ernest Hemingway, from Contexts of Criticism by Harry Levin (Harvard University Press, 1957), the critic says Hemingway puts his emphasis on nouns because, among opposite parts of speech, they come closest to things. Stringing them along by means of conjunctions, he approximates the actual flow of experience. Hemingway has often been described as a master of dialog, and most readers agree, upon being first introduced to his writing, that this is the way these characters would very talk. It is interesting to note, however, that Hemingways one attempt at playwriting was a failure. Actually, a close trial run of his dialog will reveal that this is rarely the way people really speak. The effect is accomplished, rather, by the calculated emphasis and repetition which makes us toy with what has been said. Since the critics cannot entirely agree on Hemingways style, perhaps the best way is to put it into the authors own words.Shortly before his tragic death, Hemingway gave to the Wisdom Foundation in California a collection of his observations on life and art, love and death. They were published in the January 1963, issue of Playboy magazine, and in them Hemingway said of his writing I do most of my work in my head. I never begin to write until my ideas are in order. much I recite passages of dialogue as it is being written the ear is a good censor. I never set down a sentence on paper until I have it so show that it will be clear to anyone.Yet, I sometimes think that my style is suggest ive rather than direct. The reader must often use his desire or lose the most subtle part of my thoughts. I retort great pains with my work, pruning and revising with a tireless hand. I have the welfare of my creations very much at heart. I redact them with infinite care, and burnish them until they become brilliants. What many another writer would be content to leave in massive proportions, I polish into a tiny gem. Hemingway goes on at some length, but the essence of what he says may be in this paragraphA writers style should be direct and personal, his imagery rich and earthy, and his words simple and vigorous. The greatest writers have the gift of brilliant brevity, are hard workers, supple scholars and competent stylists. To explain Hemingways style adequately in a few paragraphs is impossible. Scores of articles, and even some books, have been written on the subject, and it is to these that the serious student should go for additional, more detailed information.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Balanced Scorecards at BIOCO Essay

An psychoanalysis of, Case Study 7-2 Balanced Scorecards at BIOCO BIOCO has realized from its use of fit scorecards that the union has been able to open communication channels, where common goals are schematic throughout the whole company. Employees are able to view the companys value drivers, such as financial performance. The Chief Intelligence military officer (CIO) believed that that balanced scorecards helped employees to not only look at their own surgical incisions operations, plainly the overall operations within the company. The Vice President believed that the scorecards helped all employees realise the overall goals of the company within their own segments. Balanced scorecards also helped the IT department interpret the other business areas within the company. The scorecards helped create an internal spot that outlined the goals and the measures of the company. Balanced Scorecards allowed every employee at BIOCO to know what the company was excelling at, and where the company demanded resources be integrated in order to excel.The BIOCO mien was effective in aiding the IT department to coordinate its goals with that of the company, because every employee through balanced scorecards were able to secure the operations and key driver goals of the IT department. Employees could see whether the IT projects were effective and on track. Also, the IT department could see the operations and goals of other business areas within the company. If IT was working on a project to implement information systems (IS) in a trustworthy business area/department, they could review the balanced scorecards to see the kind of goals and operations utilized within that department. IT can then align the IS with the business dodging of a certain department by viewing these scorecards. The BIOCO speak to could be successfully integrated into intumescent validations, and considered a useful communication prick. This tool would be utilized by management to integrate the business system with the organizational structure.Creating goals based on customer perspective, internal business perspective, innovating and instruction perspective, and financial perspective would be the first abuse (Pearlson & Saunders, 2013). The next step volition include making adjustments to gaugeperformance goals accurately. For example, a large firm may gauge how customers perspective by monitoring their repute within the market, or they leave alone review the impact of projects on its users (Pearlson & Saunders, 2013). afterwards a large organization finds a way to measure goals, they allow for have to create a corporate strategy map. The map leave have balanced scorecards that descend throughout the whole company. The map will have to include company, division, region, district, store, and department balanced scorecards.The only way the BIONCO approach will be useful with a new chief operating officer is if that CEO does not see any falsify needed within the organization or very little change is needed. If changes should occur goal perspectives will have to be adjusted, and how they are measured will have to be adjusted as well. In order to implement new values, they mustiness change the whole BIONCO way approach to mirror those values. If the values dissent immensely from the past CEO, a new approach may be needed all together. The new CEO may ask to change the whole business strategy all together to emphasize the IS system. In this case the new CEO may utilize an IT dashboard instead. The BIONCO way will have to be altered to some length in order to be successful, because the CEO will most likely want to change some perspectives of the business.ReferencesPearlson, Keri and Saunders, Carol. Managing & Using Information Systems. New Jersey sternWiley & Sons, 2013. Print.

Romeo and Juliet Are Failed by Their Parental Figures, Discuss

Within the story of Romeo and Juliet the pargonntal purposes with responsibility over the children are non just the biological parents, provided in the cartridge clip when the play was written, this would create been normal for the rich, upper class families that the Montagues and Capulets were. The parental figures over the two children change as their kind mingled with the two lovers develops and other events occur within their family lives.Juliet is the main focus of the ever-changing in parental figures and this may be piling to the failing of her by her regress suck, at the leap out of the play the tending for is a vital theatrical role in her life, and Shakespeare shows this though Juliet confiding in the book. besides, this is how the change occurs as we limit Juliet feeling as she has been failed by nurse in these secretive chats. notwithstanding Romeo remains with one strong figure in his life vista the play, friar Lawrence, and although the outcomes of dramatic events this appears to remain the same thought out.Juliet and nurse have a strong bond at the beginning of the play, due to the relationship nurse agrees to wait on Juliet marry Romeo as nurse feels it is what Juliet re completelyy wants. However when lady Capulet wants Juliet to marry another man, late on in the play, the nurse advices Juliet to forget about Romeo and this is where the main start of Juliet feeling failed occurs.Juliet confides in her nurse for advice about Paris marriage proposal, but the trust between them breaks d protest when nurse says I think you are happy in this atomic number 16 match, for it excels your first Juliet is angry at nurse for motto this as she wants the nurse to help her continue her love for Romeo. Feeling failed by Nurses lack of help she decides to go to Friar Lawrence for help, breaking her relationship with nurse.In this situation the Nurse may not have failed Juliet, as she only did what she thought was best for her, however th rough Juliets eyes, the nurse failed her by helping her with Romeo at the start but stopping when the situation developed. Juliet also feels let down by her find as he forces her to marry Paris even though she begs not to, and when she says he shall not make me there a bright bride meaning she volition not marry Paris, he reacts angrily saying Or I will drag thee on a hurdle thither. accusing her of treason for not wanting to do as her father commands of her. He thinks she should be proud and thankful that he has found her such a worthy husband. He is more concerned with her status, and that of his own, than he is her happiness. Juliet knows that she will get no help from her father in following her titty so she feels forced in to taking the desperate measure of faking her own death. Juliet is clearly let down by her father who should have listened to her and determine her happiness more.Romoes parents echo the relationship in the Capulet household between them and their chil dren, as again their relationship is a distant one. So lots so that Montague and Lady Montague dont know what is faulty with Romeo when he is in depression over his unreturned love for Rosaline. However although they arent shut out to Romeo, he isnt failed by his parents as there are politic there for him Could we but learn from whence his sorrows grow, we would as willingly to give cure as know. This is said by Montugue when he is asking Benvolio if he knows what is wrong with Romeo meaning he will put right what is wrong with Romeo if he knows what it is. So Friar Lawrence is a main parental figure though the play for Romeo throughout and for Juliet after her relationship with her nurse breaks down. Friar Lawrence really tries to help the couple. He marries them and helps Juliet develop a plan so that Romeo and Juliet can finally be together.He sends the ill fated message that neer gets to Romeo and it is no failing of his that it does not reach him in time. However, despite a ll of his good intentions at the last he does fail Juliet, if he had not run away from the guards he may have been able to incline Juiet not to kill herself when she awakes from her drug induced death and finds Romeo dead beside her.In conclusion, Romeo and Juliet are let down by the parental figures in their lives. From the distant parents who care little for their happiness to the Friar and nurse who despite their love and devotion to the young people are ultimately not there for them when they consume them most. Had the parental figures done a better job in livelihood this young couple perhaps Romeo and Juliet would not be such a tragic love story.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Essay Social Security

social guarantor vent The current tender Security clay should be replaced by a mandatory secluded premium system. The current system entails run awayers being constrained to give a certain percentage of silver out of their fix checks to social Security. This tax property is used to pay benefits to retired people, disabled people, survivors of workers who endure died, and dependents of beneficiaries (SSA). To most, this system sounds unfair because workers put in hours of labor for a payroll check that religiously has money taken out for someone elses retirement, disability, and so forthtera however, people for this system believe this benefits everyone because workers are not in suss out of their get specific retirement fund so curt decisions cannot be made. In reality, people should be able to control the fate of their own retirement coin because they can decide when the money is necessary, which can be done by making the change to a privy pension system. The curr ent Social Security system creates a lot of furbish up because of the accelerating demographic factors (NCPA). Life expectancy is change magnitude faster than pass judgment in 1940, a 65-year-old man could expect to live another 12 years, now its 15 years the fertility rate is falling faster than expected from 3. 6 children for a typical woman of child-bearing age in 1960 to right two today and the elderly portion of the population is expected to annul from 12 percent today to 20 percent by 2050 increasing the name of retirees from 34 million to 80 million (NCPA).The decreasing functionals population combined with the rising elderly population means the number of elderly people needing benefits will be greater than the number of working people providing the money for those benefits (NCPA). Because of these statistics, the favor for a private pension system is growing so workers can save their taxes for their individual retirements.With a private pension system as opposed to the current, honored system, the working cast has more control over their retirement funds because for one, they would be earning the money for themselves, and two, the money would be in a private account for them. With the money accumulating in a private account, it is not exposed to risk. These federally modulate personal accounts would allow individuals to invest only in diversified, approved utual funds and not in single stocks or highly volatile stocks (Procon). In addition to its added personal safety, a private system would help the economy. Privatizing Social Security into individual investment accounts would boost economic festering by injecting money back into Americas failing financial system (Procon). With the economic growth this would cause, there could be a possible decrease in unemployment rates, force the economy out of the current recession.In conclusion, the switch from the current Social Security system to a mandatory private pension system is prototype not only for the working class, but also for the environment. Even with the critical review that a private pension system would tempt workers to charter poor decisions with their retirement funds, people should have control over the money they make and be able to determine their own fate. Working for a paycheck that loses a percentage of its total to be given to the current retirees, the disabled, etc. s unfair and will discourage the working class. A private pension system that will actually save an individuals own money will be more motivating to work towards and will better prepare him or her for their elderly years. Works Cited NCPA. Social Security Problems Accelerating. NCPA. org. National Center for Policy Analysis, 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. . Procon. Privatize Social Security. Procon. org. Procon, 13 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. . SSA. Social Security. Ssa. gov. Social Security Administration, Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

Patrol Rifles: Arming Officers to Succeed

PATROL RIFLES build up OFFICERS TO SUCCEED Sergeant Scott Buziecki due north sunup law of nature incision A Research Paper Submitted to the northeastwestern University Center for Public Safety drill of guard Staff & Command Class 175 Naperville, Illinois December 9, 2002 executive director Summary The North aurora Police surgical incision soon awards incumbents to guard their choice of 9mm or . 45 gage shooting irons no keen-sighted artillerys argon on hand(predicate). The Firearms Training Unit has pro thumpd that the surgical incision adopt the . 223 bore-hole pop off for guard guard ships officer part.The reasons for this proposal atomic number 18 (1) shooting irons argon subjectively less faithful and accept a buncoer effectual deviate than big submarine sandwichs ofttimes(prenominal) as denudates and scatterguns, (2) side arm timber weeds snap to a great extent heavily by dint of with(predicate) with(predicate) internal bulwarks than . 223 loot aegir fumes, which ca examples an join ond put on the teleph champion wire of un mean persons existence gain g plump push with, and (3) handgun drill hole warmers leave non filter torso acc protrudeerments and armion(predicate) new(prenominal) obstacles comm simply encountered, while intimately . 223 caliber sluggards exit. The objective of this look into is to go d decl ar if the NAPD should adopt a blanket(a) gun for guard officer single-valued function or keep the current side arm- that(prenominal) program as it is.The types of heavy artillery units infra consideration atomic number 18 pistol caliber strips (9mm and . 45 caliber), shotguns (slugs and duck shot), and the . 223 caliber rifle. These weapons seekament be comp atomic number 18d and contrasted with respect to verity & cooking stove, ease of sp intercept, combat injury cleverness, and prohibition keenness. prompt Incapacitation Officers shoot to immed iately grasp physiologic incapacitation of a comical who is saturnine vivification. This means that the suspect is rendered physi shrieky in suitable of continuing his or her living pitiableering behavior.This is done by (1) damaging or destroying the suspects central nervous system by shooting the vanguarder or upper spinal cord, or (2) interrupting filiation diminish to the understanding, to driveway un aw beness, done shooting the warmheartedness mass of the suspect. Stopping melodic phrase flow to the brain is done by creating as much hurt and bleeding as possible. Some rocket engines cause these effects give than an a nonher(prenominal)(prenominal)s. Decisions on weapons, ammo, and envisionning should be made with the goal of immediate incapacitation in look. Accuracy & set Pistols argon less faultless than rifles and shotguns due to their short sight r.Their useful cheat is 25 yards or less. Shotguns consider a clutches of ab emerge 30 yards wit h duck shot and nearly 50 yards with slugs. Pistol caliber rifles (9mm and . 45 caliber) countenance a useful range of about 50 yards. The best range and accuracy of all the choices is found in the . 223 caliber rifle. It is straight to oer light speed yards, even in the give of medium officers, the majority of the guard workforce. Officers should be gird with a weapon sure-footed of the desireest range that they tycoon evenhandedly sine qua non to engage with deadly force.The commodiousest residence at bejewel Middle School is about clxxx feet or 60 yards. Comp ar this to the above listed weapons ranges. Other buildings, much(prenominal) as performeries and warehouses are unremarkably rattling outsized and would equally require dogged gun capability to decorously do to an active guesswork fleck. Even though an active shooter here is unlikely, officers should still be ready to serve to one. The weapon with the best accuracy and range is the . 223 caliber rifle, followed by pistol caliber rifles, shotguns, and pistols.Ease of use Compared with the shotgun, the rifle (either pistol caliber or rifle) is to a great extent surface-off for officers to shoot and be confident with, an authoritative consideration for essay management. The shotgun is known for heavy recoil, m boththing that raises controlling it difficult, particularly for female officers and teeny-weenyr male officers. blend ins, on the separate hand, name a mild recoil. Because of this, its use is as loose for women as it is for men. If a weapon is un cheerful for officers to shoot, it is non an useful weapon.With respect to ease of use, the best weapon is one that the majority of guard officers enkindle track down tellingly, and in this case, rifles are easier to shoot than shotguns. lesion ability Handgun gages call for minimal fractionation and a small(prenominal) junior-grade actary cavum, which causes very little or no spare go ag ainsting so their lancinate effectualness is determined simply by the sizing of the wide-lived stone pit and the depth of cleverness. Shotgun slugs make up very devastating wounds due to very advanced shrewdness and if that were the all factor in choosing the appropriate round, the best garden rocket would be a slug. die skunks aver adequate sharpness, larger fugacious cavitation, and fragmentation, depending on the weight and design. The ephemeral orchestra pit, playing on meanders already sufferingd by lick fragments, causes extra trauma and bleeding. These elements combine to make . 223 bullets much than(prenominal) severe than pistol bullets. insight tests exemplify that, in general, . 223 caliber bullets cause much severe trauma than pistol calibers. Barrier perceptiveness Pistol bullets have been shown, with ballistic test, to propagate nevertheless later on going finished a common intimate wall. This is also true for shotgun slugs and duck shot. 223 caliber bullets, on the other hand, have been shown to fragment more(prenominal) and penetrate less after going done an interior wall, in that locationby bring down the risk of exposure of a bystander being wound in an adjacent fashion. .223 caliber bullets also faithfully penetrate organic structure mail, while pistol bullets and shotgun ammunition do non. This would be vitally important if officers must portray violent criminals wearing em automobile trunk armor, such as during the 1997 Hollywood buzzword robbery shootout. Long Gun critique Of 21 suburban Chicago orbital cavity agencies surveyed, every one allows legal philosophy officers to rock a grand gun ( carbon%). tossch it is non surprising that round are obtaining shotguns, it is a little surprising to find that the majority of departments surveyed (71%) are actually adopting rifles. In fact, several(prenominal)(prenominal) agencies carry both a shotgun and a rifle or give officers their choice of either weapon. Of those that carry rifles, the majority (80%) uses . 223-caliber ammunition. Conclusion Handguns are short(p) for somewhat spaces because of their control in effect(p) range, express accuracy, lesser wounding ability, and extravagantlyer risk of everyplace incursion through interior walls. 223 caliber rifles have less recoil, mend accuracy, greater range, superior wounding ability, more affectionate interior wall perceptivity, and the ability to penetrate carcass armor. Since patrol officers are the primary to respond to any life threatening criminal incident, however scarce they may be, lawfulness enforcement agencies should arm them with a spacious gun of some kind. Anything less and they allow non be adequately prepared to respond. Having adequate weapons will increment the chances that responding officers tin force out reduce the ability of the suspect to resist. Recommendations The North Aurora Police incision should a dopt . 23-caliber ammunition for patrol rifle use. Further investigating of particular proposition . 223 rounds in respective(a) weights and configurations should be done to precisely determine each rounds murder for various uses. Based on anecdotal development from firearms trainers, the section should take one round for barrier perceptivity (when this is desired) and one for close quarters use (when interior penetration is not desired). More foc utilize research and/or ballistic interrogation will help determine the specific magazines. In addition, the FBIs ammunition testing data will be of some help as well.Submitted to old geezer Thomas Fetzer Sergeant Scott Buziecki North Aurora Police Department The Village of North Aurora, a companionship of about 12,500 residents, is not a violent community in fact, the North Aurora Police Department considers itself service oriented. Still, the citizens expect the jurisprudence to be able to protect lives, our virtually import ant service. Currently, officers of the North Aurora Police Department are armed with only a sidearm, their choice of a 9mm or . 45-caliber semi- automatonlike pistol. on that time period is no supplemental weapon available, such as a shotgun or rifle.Even though officers in North Aurora are obsolescently called upon to face armed, violent victimizedoers, it could give at any moment. Since the Columbine massacre of 1999, constabulary agencies have begun planning their patrol officers in rapid deployment procedures for active shooter situations and other critical incidents. The NAPD has done this as well. However, while umteen other patrol agencies, both large and small, carry side arms and coherent guns, the North Aurora Police Department is only prepared to respond to these incidents with side arms, a signifi laughingstockt tactical dis favour.Columbine was the law enforcement communitys awaken up call and there is no longer any rationalise not to be prepared. This doe s not mean that every force should welkin a SWAT team. police officers are the backbone of every constabulary department and the premier(prenominal) to respond to every call. They should have the tools and schooling to come up to any reasonably predictable incident. Even though they are rare in North Aurora, incidents of violence are not confined to any particular jurisdiction size or socioeconomic rank, so it could happen anywhere.During the North Hollywood bank robbery shootout in Los Angeles, atomic number 20 in 1997, heavily armed offenders wearing several layers of body armor outgunned responding patrol officers for 45 proceeding. Since this incident, guard agencies across the nation began build up their patrol officers with rifles. On Halloween 2002 in St. Charles, a man fired several shots through his apartment door at children trick or treating. Patrol officers were the first to respond to these incidents and they handled at least the first several minutes until ameliorate by better-equipped personnel.What would have happened if the armed suspect con front maned the law of nature? What would have happened if that happened in North Aurora, where sidearms are the only weapons available to officers? While North Aurora has been blessed by being relatively violence- exempt, it is not immune to violence. There is nothing to indicate that any of those incidents could not have happened in North Aurora. Police administrators are responsible for ensuring that their agencies are prepared to respond to life threatening emergencies. This means adequately equipping and training personnel to accommodate c third houseenges that could reasonably be expected.If it is predictable, then it is preventable. PROBLEM STATEMENT The North Aurora Police Department currently allows officers to carry their choice of 9mm or . 45 caliber pistols. No long guns are currently authorized for use. Members of NAPDs Firearms Training Unit have suggested that the pistol is misfortunate for all situations and that a long gun should be adopted. The deficiencies in the current pistol-only program are (1) pistols are inherently less consummate and have a shorter effective range than long guns such as rifles and shotguns, (2) pistol caliber bullets penetrate more heavily through interior walls than . 23 rifle caliber bullets, which causes an profitd risk of unintended persons being hit, and (3) pistol caliber bullets will not penetrate body armor and many other obstacles commonly encountered, while around . 223 caliber bullets will. The primary upshot is to evaluate whether or not a supplementary long gun is necessary for patrol officer use in the North Aurora Police Department. If a long gun is involve, what is the best type to choose a . 223 caliber rifle, a pistol caliber rifle (9mm or . 45 cal. ), or a shotgun (buckshot or slugs)? ACHIEVING IMMEDIATE INCAPACITATIONAccording to the law, a patrol officer fag end only shoot in defense of his or her own life or that of anotherto immediately stop the life threatening behavior of the suspect. Police officers shoot to achieve immediate physiological incapacitation delimitate as the sudden physical or mental inability to pose any further risk of injury to others. (Patrick). If not physiologically changed, the suspect is still able to continue life-threatening behavior. In some cases, a hit to a suspects arm or leg might obtain psychological incapacitation, where the suspect voluntarily stops chip due to the shock of being shot.In this type of case, the suspect is still physically able to continue the fight, reavely chooses to surrender. Psychological incapacitation is very unreliable, since it varies greatly from person to person without regard to a particular cartridge clip. (Roberts 17) Therefore, we must strive to achieve immediate physiological incapacitation to stop life threatening behavior. Decisions on weapons, ammunition, and training should be made with this goal in mind. There are only ii ways to cause immediate physiological incapacitation.The first is to ill-treat or destroy the Central Nervous System, by shooting the brain or upper spinal cord. In fix to damage or destroy the CNS, officers are taught that a hit in the tri move mingled with the eyes and nose is close likely to succeed. Hits outside that area have a higher(prenominal) chance of hitting bone at an angle and can actually fail to penetrate, bouncing off. Or they can hit a part of the brain that will not incapacitate the suspect. . . . separates can perform tasks or even resist gunshot wounds of the brainespecially if they involve the frontal lobes.In documented cases of suicide, an individual has fired a bullet through the frontal lobes, to be followed by a gage bootleg shot into the basal ganglia. (DiMaio 210) The author once responded to a shooting where the dupe was shot at close range in the side of the head with a . 25 caliber bullet at an angle and the bulle t b troy ounced off his skull. He suffered only a minor flesh wound. gibe the brain or spinal cord usually causes death or perpetual disability so it is usually done only as a last resort to prevent imminent great material harm.The second way to cause immediate physiological incapacitation is to interrupt blood flow to the suspects brain, which causes unconsciousness. The best way to do this righteousness away is to cause heavy bleeding by shooting vital organs or blood arteries and vessels. The faster the suspect bleeds, the faster blood flow to the brain will stop and the sooner that unconsciousness will occur. Since the highest closeness of vital organs and blood vessels is located in the chest and abdominal cavity of the valet body, officers are taught to shoot at that area, called the center of mass.Shooting at the center of mass also increases the likelihood of getting a hit, since it is the largest part of the human body. Shooting an arm or leg to wound, as some might suggest jurisprudence should do, is not likely to cause physiological incapacitation. physiological incapacitation takes a minimum of 10-15 seconds to occur because even when shot directly through the heart, the suspects brain and muscles still have a small supply of oxygen and can function until it is exhausted. The limiting factor for consciousness is the oxygen supply to the brain.When the oxygen in the brain is consumed, unconsciousness occurs. Experiments have shown that an individual can remain conscious for at least 10-15 seconds after complete occlusion of the carotid arteries. Thus, if no blood is pumped to the brain, an individual can function, e. g. , run, for at least 10 sec before collapsing. (DiMaio 210) mark simply, the best bullets are the ones that cause physiological incapacitation the quickest. By measuring several factors of projectile wounding, the near appropriate type of round(s) can be selected for the various types of applications.There are four factors of projectile wounding (1) Depth of penetration, (2) Permanent cavity, (3) short cavity, and (4) fragmentation. Depth of penetration is the pith of meander that the bullet passes through and destroys, which is important because in order to cause physiological incapacitation, the projectile must make it deep enough to damage vital organs and blood vessels. (Patrick) The long-lasting wave cavity is the hole left by the bullets route of admit through the body. (Patrick) As it passes though, tissue is crushed and bleeding occurs.The bigger the hole, the more tissue that is damaged, the more bleeding that will occur. The unstable cavity is the tissue surrounding the ageless cavity that stretches away from the bullet as it passes through the body. (Patrick) This is a little like what happens when a rock is thrown into water. The carry on of the rock initially moves the water out of the way, cause a atypical hole in the water. The water quickly moves back and fills the hole. The amount of damage ca employ by this effect varies greatly base (generally) on the pep pill of the bullet and the elasticity of the tissue.Anatomical organizes such as blood vessels, muscles, lungs, and bowels are able to survive significant stretching with a minimum amount of damage just inelastic tissues will sustain significant damage because of the maverick cavity stretching. (Patrick) Inelastic tissues such as the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, brain, and completely honest fluid or gas filled turn up organs, such as the bladder, are highly susceptible to severe permanent splitting, vehement, and rupture due to transitory cavitation insults. (Roberts 18) Fragmentation is the breakup of the bullet. Patrick) Fragments of the bullet can spread out wider than the permanent cavity, causing multiple, littler permanent cavities and bleeding as they pass though tissue. rocket fragmentation in tissue can also greatly increase the perma- nent cavity size. When a bullet fragm ents in tissue, each of the multiple fragments spreads out radially from the main wound track, cutting its own path through tissue. (Roberts 20) Fragmentation also increases the chances that the bullet will remain in the body, thereby, reducing the chances that an complimentary bystander will be seriously hurt by a bullet that passes through the targets body.The extent of injuries caused by a bullet depend, in part, on how well the bullet educates the four listed wounding components and how well they compliment each other. Temporary cavity and fragmentation, under the right conditions, can complement each other because the bullet fragments can break off surrounding tissue, which can then be detached by the temporary cavity, in effect creating a larger permanent cavity with additional trauma and bleeding. It is the synergy of the temporary cavity acting on tissue that has already been riddled with bullet fragments that produces the increased permanent cavity . . . (Fackler 27) T herefore, the temporary cavity is reliant on the velocity of the bullet, where in the body it hits, and what the bullet does inside the body. According the Federal Bureau of Investigation, depth of penetration and permanent cavity are considered the most important of the wounding components, especially for pistol ammunition. The FBI recommends penetration of at least 12 inches to ensure this damage. (Patrick) Pistol ammunition involves a very small temporary cavity and very little fragmentation. However, the component that most affects the cruelness of a gunshot wound is the size of the temporary cavity.Due to their very high velocities and high kinetic energies, rifles can produce very severe wounds. (DiMaio 142) As stated earlier, the more trauma and bleeding caused, the more likely physiological incapacitation will occur. IS A LONG hero NECESSARY? Before considering whether a supplementary long gun is necessary, we must first compare and contrast pistols and long guns. The grea test strength of pistols is that they are always readily accessible, while their weakness is their limited accuracy and short useful range. Long guns, however, have increased accuracy and longer range than handguns.Their weakness is limited accessibility in unexpected situations. However, some insurance makers, in spite of the evidence, will still be concerned about financial obligation. Liability issues should not be the main focus of whether rifle/carbines are permitted to be carried by officers. Public safety and officer survival should be the prime consideration. (Chudwin 15) Since popular safety and officer survival are the focus, the differences of pistols and long guns in accessibility, accuracy, and range will be shown. In addition, results of a long gun survey as well as some views remote to patrol rifles will be presented.Accessibility The greatest strength of pistols is that they readily available. They are best suited for use at close range (under 25 yards) in situat ions in which an unexpected threat submits officers. When confront with a non-anticipated life-threatening situation, a peace officer is best armed with the firearm of convenience, a handgun . . . . (Bollig 24) The study Tactical Officers Association, in its Tactical Team branch Selection position paper agrees It is recommended by the Association that members tasked with entering wondering(a) areas be adequately armed with a shoulder-fired weapon . . . Handguns are to be carried as secondary or back up weapons and not as primary entry weapons. (Tactical Team Weapons Selection 5-6) Special agent Urey Patrick, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, agrees A review of law enforcement shootings wee-weely suggests that irrespective of the number of rounds fired in a shooting, most of the date only one or two solid torso hits on the thwarter can be expected. This expectation is realistic because of the nature of shooting incidents and the extreme difficulty of shooting a handgun with precision under such dire conditions.The probability of multiple hits with a handgun is not high. experienced officers implicitly recognize that fact, and when potential violence is reasonably expected, their preparations are characterized by obtaining as many shoulder weapons as possible. Since most shootings are not anticipated, the officer refer cannot be prepared in advance with heavier armament. As a corollary tactical principle, no law enforcement officer should ever plan to meet an expected attack armed with only a handgun. Patrick) The most general description of a situation where a pistol is inadequate and a long gun would be preferred is one where officers reasonably believe that lethal force might be necessary. Accuracy Pistols are inherently less accurate than long guns. The . 223 has advantages relative to a handgun, part by creating greater wound trauma, but primarily through greater accuracy of fire and the associated extension of effective range. (MacPherson 30) At the convention range, lost(p) shots are caused by the failure of the shooter to align the sights at the moment the trigger breaks and the bullet leaves the pose.In real life, where both the shooter and the target are usually moving, miss shots are very common. In a study of 19 officer-involved shootings the Joliet, Illinois Police Department found that officers, using various types of firearms, at sea their intended target 71 percent of the time. (Kerr and Wilkerson 10) Pistols are imprecise for two main reasons. The first reason is simply the distance between the front and rear sights. Pistols have a short sight radius, while long guns have a much greater distance between the sights. The greater the sight radius, the greater the accuracy will be.The second reason for pistols limited accuracy when compared to long guns is the stability (or instability) of the way that pistols and long guns are held. intimately officers use a two-hand pee when firing a pistol, while a long gun allows a four-point holdboth hands, cheek, and shoulder. (Lesce 28) With a two handed pistol hold, mis conjunctive of the sights from the eye of the shooter happens with only a beautiful movement of the wrist or a lowering of the arms, which is very easy to do in a gunfight. This misalignment is possible because of the short sight radius and the unanchored hold.Any misalignment of the sights translates to a missed shot. In order to break the eye-rear sight-front sight alignment using a long gun, an officer would have to hold the weapon incorrectly. The superior range of long guns is closely related to greater effective range than pistols. Effective Range In contrast with the performance of handguns, long guns offer greater range. The useful range of a pistol is 25 yards or less. For some officers the ideal pistol range may be only as uttermost as 15 yards. When used with buckshot, a shotguns supreme useful range is around 30 y ards.With slugs, the maximal range for the median(a) officer is no more than 50 yards, while a rifle, on the other hand, is best for liaise ranges (up to ampere-second yards). (Fairburn 39) Sniper rifles, of course, are useful for longer ranges but patrol officers would not have a need for such longrange accuracy. Armed with a patrol rifle, an officer can control a 100 yard radius which . . . allows fewer officers to control a given area and still come back far more close-range precision than that offered by a sidearm or a shotgun. (Fairburn 59)Specifically, long guns would be advantageous to deploy in the next types of situations hostage situations, barricaded subjects, felony stops, perimeter containment, confronting armed criminals wearing body armor, tactical entries on search and arrest warrants, and crimes involving weapons. Their advantages in accuracy and range increase the tactical advantage for responding officers, allowing them to be farther away behind better cover. Long Guns Used SPSC 175 Shotguns 29% Lon g Gun look A number of area police agencies currently use long weapons of some kind or another and many have replaced their shotguns with patrol rifles.Of 21 agencies surveyed, every one allows patrol officers to carry a long gun (100%). Of those, seven (33. 3%) carry only rifles, eight (38. 1%) carry rifles and shotguns or the officers choice, and six (28. 6%) carry only shotguns. Therefore, 71. 4% of the agencies surveyed allow patrol officers to carry rifles and 28. 6% carry only shotguns. See pie chart in figure 1. Of the fourteen departments that allow rifles, eleven of them (78. 6%) use . 223-caliber ammunition Only troika of fourteen, (21. 4%) use 9mm ammunition. Class survey) While this survey is not scientific, it certain demonstrates that long guns are the norm and patrol rifles are not a radical idea. Rifles 71% Figure 1 Opposing Views Even though a number of departments have switched or are switching to the use of rifles by patrol officers, there are opposing viewpoin ts. One view says that if police are armed with more firepower, they will feel pressure to use them. Its courting trouble, said Tom Diaz of the Violence Policy Center, a chapiter-based non-profit research group that studies the effects of violence. The honest cop never has the subroutine to use his gun, Diaz said. So if this kind of firepower is available, there is an implicit pressure to use it. Yet the amount officer often lacks the training and experience. (Vogt 8) Some of the LAPD officers involved in the 45 minute long North Hollywood bank robbery shootout in all likelihood had never used their guns in the line of duty before and they clearly needed a more powerful weapon that day. While events like this are not likely in North Aurora (or anywhere for that matter), patrol officers should be reasonably prepared to respond Another viewpoint says that community policing and more firepower do not mix. Particularly problematic . . . s that while the federal government is for tify police departments, it is also promoting a around the bender, gentler approach to law enforcement with the Community orient Policing program. (Elbow 5A) Community policing is based on officers responding to the problems and concerns of the community, along with the community members. If an armed offender is endangering the community, the community unavoidablenesss the police to come prepared to put an end to it. Is the community going to care what the weapon looks as long as it helps the police conclude the incident safely? Will they be upset if an necessitous bystander is hurt by a rifle or shotgun?Of course they will, but this would also be the case if a bystander were hurt by an officer armed with only a pistol. Finally, this opposing viewpoint agrees that more heavily armed suspects are a problem for the police. He says that arming police with such weapons is not a genuine idea and offers no better way to deal with the problem. It takes little imagination to guess the difficulties this poses for the police in the future. Shootouts with criminals equipped with handguns are dangerous. Facing adversaries armed with military outrage rifles substantially increases the risk to both police and innocent citizens . . . Increasing police weaponry is really not a sound solution to the problem. In a gun battle, the police are usually not in a position to unleash the fury of an automatic weapon at an armed opponent. Most gun battles take place in an urban setting. Firing off a clip of ammunition in the command will, sooner or later, result in the killing of an innocent bystander. The police are therefore limited in their ability to respond to modern weaponry. (Holden 341) Mr. Holden agrees that heavily armed criminals pose a great risk to police and civilians and he is right about that. His point that the police are not n a position to use an automatic weapon misses the point. First, very few departments, if any, are actually arming patrol officers with fully automatic rifles. Rather, they are semi-automatic rifles, which fire one round at a time with each trigger pull. In unexpected confrontations with armed offenders, his point is accurate, because they cannot call timeout to get their rifle. However, the value of having patrol officers armed with rifles is that when they are responding to a situation where they can reasonably expect an armed offender, they can have the rifle in their hand when they exit their patrol car (with an interior attach rack. This is no slower than drawing their pistol from its holster. Finally, Mr. Holden refers to a magazine, the container that holds the cartridges, as a clip. If he does not even know what the name of the part, how knowledgeable is he and how intensive was peer review of his book? The above opinions expressed against arming patrol officers seem either misinformed or based on something other than facts and tactical principles. Is a long gun a necessary get together of equipment for a patrol officer to carry? The answer is an emphatic ABSOLUTELY. Without long guns, officers will be virtually tactically helpless beyond 25 yards.WHAT TYPE OF LONG GUN IS BEST SUITED FOR PATROL map? Many agencies are concerned about liability and rightly so. However, choosing the wrong tools and training for the job seems more at risk for incurring liability than doing careful research and then selecting the best solution. It is a far greater liability risk to fail to give officers the tools & skills they need to survive and succeed. The learn case of City of Canton v. Harris (1989) identifies deliberate indifference toward civil rights on the part of city policy makers as the mental state needed to subject a municipality to Section 1983 liability.Recall here that deliberate indifference is uniform to recklessness in the disregard of risk to others. (Mijares et. al 36) In other words, to be aware of a risk and fail to prepare for it can create civil rights liability. Which type of weapon (and what cartridge) is best ultimately depends on the needs of each particular agency, but weapons that are easy for officers to operate will be the best choice. The primary choice each agency must make is first, to decide the caliber and second, to decide the configuration (i. e. full surface jacket, hollow point, etc. ) and in what situations each type will be used.Then they should select the weapon to use with the ammunition. First, some ammunition-related definitions, since these terms and abbreviations are used throughout this discussion Full metal jacket (FMJ) This bullet has a metal jacket surrounding the lead or sword core, to prevent it from nailing on impact. The FMJ is the bullet configuration used by the military. (DiMaio 143) Jacketed soft point (JSP) contradictory the full metal-jacketed bullet, a metal jacket part covers the soft point bullet. The core is exposed at the tip, which helps the bullet expand upon impact.Soft point bullets are usually us ed for hunt club. (DiMaio 143) Jacketed hollow point (JHP) want the soft point bullet, the hollow point bullet has a metal jacket partially covering it. However, the exposed tip is hollow, which encourages expansion upon impact. holler point bullets are usually used for hunting and shooting competitions. (DiMaio 144) compass point bullets are the official bullets of the NAPD. The three different types of ammunition under consideration are (1) Pistol Calibers (9mm and . 45 calibers), (2) Shotgun (both buckshot and slugs), and (3) Rifle Calibers (. 23 caliber). 9mm and . 45 caliber bullets are being considered because these are the currently issued duty ammunition for the North Aurora Police Department. Shotgun slugs and buckshot are being considered because they have always been the standard second weapon of law enforcement. Finally, . 223 caliber bullets are being considered because they seem to be the most popular rifle round that agencies select. .308 caliber bullets are not being considered because they are generally considered too powerful for patrol use. They are most commonly used by police snipers.Deciding what caliber to use requires some knowledge about the wounding mechanics of each of the major choices for long guns. Comparisons will be made between shotguns, pistol caliber rifles, and . 223 caliber rifles in the areas of ease of use, accuracy and range, wounding ability, interior wall penetration and body armor penetration. Ease of Use Compared with the shotgun, the rifle is more comfortable for officers to shoot and be confident with, an important consideration for risk management. While this is not an advantage over pistol caliber rifles, it is huge advantage over shotguns.The shotgun is a difficult gun to master. Its recoil is ebullient for many small-statured officers and at least bothersome to even the biggest, strongest men. This recoil hampers precise placement of slugs as well as limiting the practice many need to be effective with s hot. . . . The shotgun, despite its long history of use in the United States, is not an ideal second weapon for police agencies (Fairburn 39) If officers are not comfortable with a weapon, they will not practice as well and their handling of the weapon during real-life situations will be tentative. This becomes a liability issue.As police agencies become more sensitive to the liability aspects of police firearms training, specifically the lack of such training, the rifle or carbine becomes more attractive. Officers are more comfortable with a rifle since it allows more precision and metes out less abuse. The comfort factor promotes increased training and familiarity, which in turn, increases confidence. And being confident with ones weapon is the secret to effective use. (Fairburn 39) Would you want officers, armed with a weapon that they do not feel comfortable with, to respond to a life-threatening situation?Due to the freeive recoil, training is limited because the body can only take so much. With limited training comes limited confidence and limited familiarity. These are not welcome qualities of a weapon for law enforcement. In contrast with shotguns, the rifles low recoil makes it as easy to master for women as it is for men. The . 223 cartridge offers a milder recoil than shotguns and full size rifle cartridges because it is an intermediate surface cartridge. This is important for training female and smaller male officers. Parker 3-4) It is my experience that training officers to effectively use the rifle/carbine is easier due to the shoulder mounted stability, low recoil, and long sight radius. (Chudwin 17) Once an officer is taught the proper way to hold the rifle, getting accurate hits is as simple as lining up the sights with the target and making a smooth trigger pull. Accuracy & Range Long gun accuracy, from least accurate to most accurate, is the shotgun, the pistol caliber rifle, and the . 223 caliber rifle. Slugs and buckshot are the least accurate of all three types of long gun ammunition under consideration.When used by the average officer, the shotgun has a useful range of around 30 yards with buckshot and about 50 yards with slugs. Buckshot is terribly imprecise since the pellets spray outwards after they leave the barrel. They spread wider the farther they travel, which is why the range is so limited. (Fairburn 39) While the best officers might be able to hit a suspect farther than 50 yards away with a shotgun with good quality sights, average officers are not capable of this, and they represent a much larger percentage of the patrol workforce.The accurate range of a pistol caliber rifle may be no more than 50 yards, although a patrol rifle should be capable of accurate head shots at 50 yards and accurate body shots at 100 yards (or more). (Fairburn 59) In comparison, a rifle caliber weapon, in the hands of an average officer, is capable of accurate shots to a range of at least 100 yards, if not more. (Tactical Team Weapons Selection 2) Well-skilful officers might be capable of distances greater than that but probably would not be much need for a shot to be taken at those ranges.The most accurate long gun, of those under consideration, that you can arm a patrol officer with is rifle chambered in an intermediate rifle cartridge, such as the . 223. Critics might suggest that the range of the . 223 caliber bullet makes missed shots too dangerous because they will travel a very great distance, change magnitude the chances for an innocent bystander to be struck. However, Chief Jeff Chudwin, of the Olympia Fields Police Department and a police rifle instructor, points out that the level best range (with best barrel angle) of the . 223 (8,300 ft. ) is similar to that of the 9mm (6,800 ft. and the . 357 magnum (7,100 ft. ). The 12 ga. 1 oz. Slug, which weighs considerably more than the others do, travels only 1,830 feet. Any stray round is a hazard and it is illogical to pack one type of firea rm is more or less dangerous than another based only the maximum range of the round. The key issue is, what is the penetration and ricochet potential of the bullet type and caliber in a residential area? (16) Wounding Ability The FBI recommends projectile penetration of at least 12 inches in order to ensure that the projectile gets deep enough to damage vital organs and large blood vessels. Patrick) Dr. Martin Fackler, a world-renowned ballistic expert, believes that in order for the . 223 bullet to cause adequate tissue damage, it must produce a 14-15 cm temporary cavity along with bullet fragmentation of 30-50%. (27) In terms of terminal wound ballistics (the study of what projectiles do after they hit something), there is no more devastating projectile than a shotgun slug. In tests of hollow point projectiles shot into bare gelatin conducted by Dr. Gary Roberts, a 12-gauge 1- ounce shotgun slug had an average penetration of 26. inches and average maximum temporary cavity of 13. 0 cm. 12 gauge 00 buckshot had an average penetration of 22. 8 inches. Maximum temporary cavity was not measured for this round. A 9mm 147gr JHP bullet (similar to an NAPD issued round) had an average penetration of 13. 2 inches and an average maximum temporary cavity of 5. 5 cm. A . 45 cal 230gr JHP bullet (similar to an NAPD issued round) had an average penetration of 14. 2 inches and an average maximum temporary cavity of 6. 5 cm. The shotgun slugs and pistol bullets did not fragment in the testing.The . 223 bullets (various weights and configurations) tested had varied performance depending on the grain weight and the configuration of the round. The average penetration ranged from 6. 1 inches to 16. 8 inches, while the average maximum temporary cavity ranged from as small as 7 cm to as large as 14 cm. The . 223 bullets fragmentation ranged from as little as 2. 4% to as high as 100%. (28) In contrast with rifle bullets, handgun bullets cause a much smaller temporary cavity, which does not usually add wounding effectiveness. Roberts & Bullian 143) Part of this is because rifle rounds travel close to 3,000 feet per second and pistol bullets travel around 1,000 fps, depending on the caliber. (Roberts 28) All handgun wounds will combine the components of penetration, permanent cavity, and temporary cavity to a greater or lesser degree. Fragmentation, on the other hand, does not reliably occur in handgun wounds due to the relatively low velocities of handgun bullets. Fragmentation occurs reliably in high velocity projectile ounds (impact velocity in excess of 2000 feet per second) inflicted by soft or hollow point bullets. In such a case, the permanent cavity is stretched so far, and so fast, that tearing and rupturing can occur in tissues surrounding the wound channel which were weakened by fragmentation damage. It can significantly increase damage in rifle bullet wounds. (Patrick) The high velocity of rifle bullets, when rapidly slowed by the body, causes the tearing and rupturing associated with the temporary cavity, especially when combined with fragmentation.Research by the military has revealed that the feature of a bullets interaction with soft tissue that contributes most to the malignity and extent of the wound is the size of the temporary wound cavity. The size of this cavity is directly related to the amount of kinetic energy lost by a bullet in the tissue. Rifle bullets, by virtue of high velocities, possess considerably more kinetic energy than pistol bullets. The severity and extent of a wound, however, are determined not by the amount of kinetic energy possessed by the bullet but alternatively by the amount of this kinetic energy that is lost in the tissue.The major determinants of the amount of kinetic energy lost by a bullet in the body are (1) the kinetic energy possessed by the bullet at the time of impact with the body, (2) the shape of the bullet, (3) the angle of gape at the time of impact, (4) any change in the pr esented area of the bullet in its passage through the body, (5) construction of the bullet, and (6) the biological characteristics of the tissues through which the bullet passes. (DiMaio 142) Pistol bullets, unlike rifle bullets, have in fit velocity to cause fragmentation. DiMaio 47) Individuals shot with high-velocity rifle bullets, whether full metal-jacketed military rounds or soft-point hunting rounds, show more severe wounds than people wounded by pistol bullets. This is especially true of rifle hunting ammunition. It is also true that rifle hunting ammunition, because it is soft-point, does fragment in the body. (DiMaio 311) If the pistol bullets do fragment, the fragments stay very near the permanent cavity (within 1 cm), essentially reducing wounding effectiveness since the smaller main bullet will cut a smaller permanent cavity. Roberts 20) Rifle bullets break up easier than pistol bullets due to their small size and weight and the increased stress caused by the high velo city. To summarize, with handgun bullets there is essentially no fragmentation and a very small temporary cavity, which causes very little or no additional wounding so wounding effectiveness is determined simply by the size of the permanent cavity and the depth of penetration. Therefore, by going with a pistol caliber rifle, an agency does not really gain anything but better accuracy over a handgun.Shotgun slugs produce devastating wounds due to very high penetration and if that were the only factor in choosing the appropriate round, the best projectile would be a slug. But the fact is that pistol bullets and shotgun slugs and buckshot have a tendency to penetrate more than rifle bullets. Rifle bullets can produce adequate penetration, temporary cavitation, and fragmentation, so by selecting a rifle, an agency gains range, accuracy, and wounding ef- fectiveness over pistols & shotguns. While Dr.Roberts test results are not conclusive enough select one specific cartridge (due to the limited number tested), they do demonstrate better overall performance by the . 223 caliber cartridge than pistol calibers cartridges and shotgun slugs and buckshot. Examination of more test results are needed to specify an exact cartridge for duty use. pleasant wounding performance of the . 223 bullet is based, at least partly, on its velocity and the type of weapon ( length of barrel) used. 5. 56mm/. 223 weapons require a minimum barrel length of 14. inches to optimize incapacitation potential, as 5. 56mm/. 223 weapons with barrel lengths shorter than 14. 5 inches . . . exhibit significantly change magnitude wounding effects and limited incapacitation potentials, similar to those produced by the 9mm pistol bullets used in handguns and SMGs submachine guns. (Roberts 24) In order to ensure fragmentation and effective wounding ability, weapons used should have a long enough barrel length to produce muzzle velocities above 2,500 feet per second.Examples of weapons that meet this cr iterion are the Colt M-16/AR-15 and M-4/CAR-15, H&K G41 and HK33, and the Ruger Mini-14. (Roberts & Bullian 145) While recommending a specific weapon and specific ammunition is outside the scope of this paper, it is important to keep these factors in mind when making selections. Barrier Penetration While deep penetration in soft body tissue is desirable for wounding effectiveness (immediate physiological incapacitation), there must be a balance of enough penetration without too much.Since the selected shoulder-mounted weapon will undoubtedly be used in close quarters, such as during a high risk foray into or near residences, police must try to prevent missed shots from over sharp and striking an innocent bystander in an adjacent room or on an adjacent floor. While some police administrators select pistol calibers for their rifles to reduce the perceived over penetration liability risk with rifle calibers, there is actually an increased liability with pistol calibers when used insi de structures.Handgun bullets, including rounds similar to NAPDs duty rounds, have been shown to penetrate further through common building materials than do rifle bullets. The fragmenting behavior of most 5. 56mm (. 223) bullets in both soft tissue and building materials, drastically limits their over penetration potential compared with that of many pistol bullets. (Roberts & Bullian 145) As suspected based on previous testing, all of the 9mm 147 gr JHP, . 40 S&W clxxx gr JHP, and . 45 ACP 230 gr JHP bullets failed to expand and had very deep, excessive penetration after leaving through the interior wall, due to plugging of the hollow point.With the hollow point plugged, the bullets performed nearly identical to FMJ pistol bullets (Roberts 23) The NAPD issues Speer brand jacketed hollow point (JHP) ammunition in both 9mm 145 grain and . 45 ACP 230 grain. In tests of hollow point projectiles shot through a simulated interior wall into bare gelatin, a 1-ounce shotgun slug had an av erage penetration of 22. 8 inches and average maximum temporary cavity of 14. 0 cm. 12 gauge 00 buckshot had an average penetration of 23. 2 inches. Average maximum temporary cavity was not measured.A 9mm 147gr JHP bullet (similar to an NAPD issued round) had an average penetration of 22. 8 inches and an average maximum temporary cavity of 2. 0 cm. A . 45 cal 230gr JHP bullet (similar to an NAPD issued round) had an average penetration of 29. 7 inches and an average maximum temporary cavity of 3. 0 cm. (Roberts 28) In these tests, all projectiles had more penetration into gelatin (a simulation of the consent of human soft tissue) after having penetrated a common interior wall than without penetrative a wall.As stated above, the drywall plugs the hollow point, causing it to function like a full metal jacket bullet. The . 223 bullets tested (various weights and configurations), on the other hand, had less penetration gelatin into after Interior Wall Penetration (Roberts 28) .223 Fed 55 gr. JSP . 223 Win 55 gr. FMJ . 45 cal. Win 230 gr. JHP 12 ga. Rem shotgun 1 oz. slug HPRS 12 ga. Rem 00 buckshot 9mm Fed 147 gr. JHP 0 Figure 2 penet rating the wall. interior Their 14. 4 16. 1 29. 7 22. 8 23. 2 22. 8 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 average maximum penetration from ranged 10. 6 inches to 16. 1 inches, their Avg.Penetration in Inches average maxi- mum temporary cavity ranged from 7. 0 cm to 14. 0 cm, and their fragmentation ranged from 11. 8% to 79. 5%. See figure 2. While some rounds still have sufficient penetration to cause a serious wound after penetrating an interior wall, their penetration is clearly less than that of the pistol calibers. (Roberts 28) The FBI has done extensive testing on the terminal ballistics of all kinds of bullets, however, they will not allow law enforcement agencies to share these statistics outside of their own agency. This is the reason why FBI testing is not cited here.While their bare gelatin testing results will be helpful for a future inte rnal study of ammunition, their penetration tests may not be helpful. Unfortunately, the testing and evaluation criteria are exactly backward relative to law enforcement use in gunfight scenarios the testing and sound judgement was designed to find ammunition that would produce substantial wound trauma after penetrating housing barriers. (MacPherson 32) The ideal round would be one that produces incapacitating wounds when striking the intended target but would not produce substantial wound trauma after penetrating walls. . . . stray 5. 56mm/. 23 bullets seem to offer a reduced risk of injuring innocent bystanders and an inherent reduced risk of civil litigation in situations where bullets miss their intended target and enter or exit structures. 5. 56mm/. 223 caliber weapons may be safer to use in CQB situations and in crowded urban environments than 9mm, . 45 S&W, or 12 ga. weapons. (Roberts 24) In another test conducted by the Joliet and spinning top Hill, Illinois police depar tments, pistol ammunition, shotgun slugs and buckshot were found to stay inbuilt after penetrating two residential walls (four pieces of drywall), while many . 223 rounds break significantly.Pistol ammunition, shotgun slugs, and buckshot represent a greater threat to mass and other officers than does several of the . 223 rounds tested. (Kerr and Wilkinson 14) More testing is needed in this area to be able to select a specific round, but it is clear that pistol caliber bullets and shotgun slugs fired inside a structure during a raid, for example, penetrate more than . 223 caliber bullets. Body Armor Penetration Unlike pistol bullets, shotgun slugs, and buckshot, rifle bullets penetrate soft body armor, which is very important if officers have to confront violent offenders wearing body armor.Recall that the suspects in the LA bank robbery shootout wore body armor. In testing published in Journal of supranational Wound ballistics Association, 9mm, . 40 S&W, and . 45 ACP bullets cocksure the 12 gauge 00 buckshot pellets failed to penetrate the body armor. The shotgun slugs did penetrate some, but not all, layers of the body armor. While they did push the armor panels into the gela- tin, simulating blunt trauma injuries, the body armor did stop the slug from entering the body in every case. Unlike the pistol calibers and shotgun slugs, all . 23 bullets frustrationed the body armor. (Roberts 24) As law enforcement officers increasingly confront criminals protected by soft body armor designed to defeat pistol bullets and shotgun pellets, the ability of the 5. 56mm/. 223 bullets to defeat soft body armor has become a significant factor. (Roberts 16) To summarize, of the three types of weapons under consideration, the . 223 caliber rifle is by far the most accurate. Because of this, its effective range is also superior to the other choices. In the area of wounding effectiveness, the . 23 caliber is, again, superior to the pistol calibers. The shotgun, at close ranges, is probably the most devastating firearm that there is. But pistol calibers and shotguns penetrate more through common building materials than the . 223 caliber bullet, which increases the chance that an innocent bystander could be seriously hurt by a missed round that penetrates a wall. Moreover, pistol caliber bullets and shotgun slugs and buckshot will not penetrate body armor, while . 223 caliber bullets will.Conclusion Since patrol officers are the first to respond to any life threatening criminal incident, however infrequent they may be, law enforcement agencies should arm them with a long gun of some kind. Anything less and they will not be adequately prepared to respond. The North Aurora Police Department Firearms Training Unit trains officers according to the Police Training Institutes philosophy and methodology, which in part says the strategic Objective of any tactical operation is to . . . diminish the potential for safeguard. Should resistance occur, overcome rapidly with minimal risk. Officers are taught to . . . create and maintain a recognizable advantage . . . (Police Training Institute) Having adequate weapons will increase the chances that responding officers can reduce the ability of the suspect to resist. If he does resist, officers will be better able to defeat his resistance quickly with the least amount of risk to themselves and others. Long guns are more intimidating to criminals and simply deploying one may win over some offenders to give up without a fight. If they do not give up, the officers will be better prepared to defend themselves.If officers confront an armed criminal with less than adequate weapons, they give up some of their tactical advantage, thereby increasing the risk to themselves and innocent bystanders. Handguns are inadequate for some situations because of their limited effective range, limited accuracy, lesser wounding ability, and higher risk of over penetration through interior walls. The . 223 calibe r rifles have less recoil, better accuracy, greater range, superior wounding ability, more favorable interior wall penetration, body armor penetration.Police agencies across the nation, including the NAPD, have been trained in rapid deployment procedures for active shooter situations such as at schools and businesses. These are necessary skills for officers to possess in society today. However, the skills and knowledge gained from these classes is not put to full use unless officers are given the correct tools for the job. trust the differences between rifles and pistols in the context of active shooter incidents. Many schools and large businesses have long hallways, some in excess of 200 feet. For example, Jewel Middle Schools longest hallway is approximately 180 feet long (60 yards).If there were an active shooter at the end of the hall shooting at students and responding officers, a body shot against the suspect would be the minimum need. Of course, this would not immediately ph ysiologically incapacitate the suspecthe or she could continue shooting for 10-15 seconds. How many more students or officers could be shot in this time? It would be optimal for officers to take a precise head shot and immediately end the suspects life threatening behavior. A pistol is incapable of making an accurate shot at that range and shooting from that far away is really spraying and praying for a hit.For these situations, the only effective weapon is one capable of accurate shots from at least 100 yards away. Recall the earlier cited maximum ranges Pistol25 yards, Shotgun with slugsless than 50 yards, Shotgun with buckshot30 yards, Pistol caliber rifle50 yards, and . 223 rifle100 yards or more. It would be tactically prudent for officers holding the perimeter of such an incident to be behind adequate cover as far away from the building as possible. Of those under consideration, the best weapon for this deputation is a rifle chambered in . 223 caliber. 223 caliber rifles are available in various weights and configuration that will limit their penetration through common interior walls to reduce the chances of an innocent bystander being seriously injured in an adjacent room. Pistol caliber bullets have been shown to penetrate more in ballistic gelatin (a simulant for human soft tissue) after penetrating a common interior. While more accurate than a pistol, pistol caliber rifles have less wounding ability than a . 223 rifle bullet. A shotgun, while superior in wounding ability, is limited in range and inferior in accuracy compared to a rifle plus it penetrates even more than pistol bullets.Think of patrol officers responding to a hostage situation where the armed suspect is holding his victim from behind and yelling, If I cant have her, then no one will. Officers are only armed with pistols and it will take at least thirty minutes for a police sniper to arrive and set up. After fifteen minutes, efforts to convince him to surrender are un happy as he gets increasingly agitate and officers believe that he is about to kill her when he starts raising the gun toward her head. Officers would be derelict in their duty if they did not use lethal force at that point.A headshot would be the only option to immediately incapacitate the suspect before he shoots the victim. Taking that shot with a pistol would be a lot less likely to be successful than the same shot with a rifle. A well-placed shot would likely end the situation successfully. A missed shot could result in the calamity of the victim being killed, either by the suspect or by the police. Granted, a situation like this is unlikely in any town, but the police should still be adequately prepared to respond. Because of the totality of the information available, it is this authors recommendation for the North Aurora Police Department to adopt . 23 ammunition for patrol rifle use. For those concerned about incurring additional liability, consider this As John Hall of the FBI pointed out in his series of articles in the FBI Journal, a firearms training program that addresses legal, operable and policy considerations will likely win in court. (Chudwin 15) Further investigating of specific . 223 rounds in various weights and configurations should be done to examine more closely their performance in both desired penetration (shooting through barriers at a suspect behind cover) situations as well as limited penetration (inside structures).If this does not produce clear enough data to make an informed choice, then the Department should conduct gelatin testing before selecting official ammunition. Rifle bullets, including the . 223 is not the magic bullet (pardon the pun) that kit and caboodle perfectly in all applications. But certain weights and configurations perform well in their intended missions and can be deployed based on the situation. ballistic testing must be done with each of the various cartridge configurations (i. e. full metal jacket, hollow point, sof t point, etc. ) in order to auge their effectiveness for the given application. This testing can usually be consistent through the Illinois Tactical Officers Association or various ammunition manufacturers for free or at a very low cost. In closing, Chief Chudwins comments sum up the need for a patrol rifle program the best In conclusion, establishing a rifle/carbine program is a positive approach to meet needed officer survival and public safety demands. From rural America to the big cities, law enforcement officers have faced violent, heavily armed offenders. Let history be our guide.There is a turn out need for the rifle/carbine as a patrol weapon. These firearms, in the hands of select well-trained officers, are a line of defense against the ultimate predators. (20) work Cited Bollig, Tim. Structural Penetration Testing. San Diego County Sheriffs Department report, Jan. 2000. Rpt. in Patrol Rifle. CD-ROM. Sept. 2002 version. Doylestown, PA National Tactical Officers Associat ion. Chudwin, Jeff. Establishing a Police Rifle/Carbine Program. The Tactical ring Winter 1999 15-20. Class survey. School of Police Staff and Command class 175 (Naperville, IL).Northwestern University Center for Public Safety. 15 Nov. 2002. DiMaio, Vincent J. M. Gunshot Wounds Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics, and rhetorical Techniques. Boca Raton CRC, 1993. Elbow, Steven. Military Muscle Comes to Mayberry Capitol Times 18 Aug. 2001 5A. Fackler, Martin L. Perspectives on the . 223 Remington. Journal of the International Wound Ballistics Association. Vol. 3. 4 (19xx) 27. Holden, Richard N. Modern Police Management. Englewood Cliffs Prentiss Hall, 1994 Kerr, Patrick, and Wilkerson, Dwayne. The . 223 Remington Cartridge in anUrban Environment. ITOA News Fall 1997 10 Lesce, Tony. The Police Carbine. Law and Order Apr. 2001 27. MacPherson, Duncan. . 223 ammo for Law Enforcement. Journal of the International Wound Ballistics Association Vol. 3. 2 (19xx) 30-33. Mijares, T omas C. , Ronald M. McCarthy, and David B. Perkins. The Management of Police Specialized Tactical Units. Springfield, IL Thomas, 2000. Parker, Robert W. Police Rifles. Omaha, neon Police Department memorandum, 26 Mar. 1997. Rpt. in Patrol Rifle. CD-ROM. Sept. 2002 version.Doylestown, PA National Tactical Officers Association. Patrick, Urey W. Handgun Wounding Factors and Effectiveness. U. S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Washington 1989. 31 Oct. 2002 . Roberts, Gary K, and Bullian, Michael E. Comparison of the Wound Ballistic Potential of 9mm vs. 5. 56mm (. 223) Cartridges for Law Enforcement admission Applications. Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners Journal Vol. 25. 2 (1993) 142-148. Appendix A Patrol Rifle survey Please fill in as much information as you know & return to Scott Buziecki. ) Department name ____________________________________ 2) Does your department allow patrol officers to carry any long guns in their pat